## Cooperative Learning Model

**Cooperative Learning Model**

A. The Concept Of

1. Understanding

If The Cooperative Learning Model? Model learning using small groups, each student in the group have different ability levels, using varied learning activities to enhance students ' understanding of the topic/subject matter taught. Each Member of the group responsible for studying the material being taught, but is also responsible for helping members of the group to learn, thus need to be created the atmosphere of success.

On cooperative learning model of every Member of the group to each other depending on which each student is dependent on other students in the achievement of learning objectives, and all have a responsibility to the success of members and himself. All students in learning activities should participate actively, individual differences between students can be minimized as they studied the matter and by the existence of social skills.

Cooperative learning Model was developed based on constructivist theory of learning-cognitive. One of the theories of Vygotsky, namely about the emphasis on the nature of the sosiokultural of the learning. Vygotsky was convinced that higher mental functions will appear in the conversation or collaboration between individuals. One implication of this theory is the study of cooperative.

Basic Principles Of Cooperative Learning Model:

1. students in his group should assume that they Tome as lively as and sepenanggungan

2. the student is responsible for everything within the Group

3. students should see that all the members in the group have the same goal

4. students must divide the duties and responsibilities are the same among members of his group

5. Students will be subject to evaluation and awarded prizes/Awards will also be charged for all group members

6. the students share the leadership and they need the skills to learn together during their learning process

7. Students will be required liability about the material learned in his group.

The Characteristics Of Cooperative Learning Model:

1. students work in cooperative groups to complete the subject matter

2. the Group was formed of students who have high, medium and low

3. members of the group can be derived from the tribes, cultures, genders and races.

4. the award is more group-oriented rather than individuals.

2. the purpose of

2. Cooperative Learning Model aims to:

1. academic learning

2. acceptance of diversity

3. development of social skills

Advantage Of Cooperative Learning Model

1. active learning. Cooperative learning Model requires that each student actively interact with one another.

2. social skills. Students learn to interact with other students, develop interpersonal skills, communication, leadership, compromise and collaborate.

3. Interdependence. The reliance group developed positively and trust with the interactions of students to achieve the same purpose.

4. Individual Accountability. If the Group achieved success and the success it is the result of input from each individual in the group. Every student learns to get recognition of what they do. On the model of learning cooperative is always used a mechanism to test the students individually and in groups.

Cooperative Learning Model Weaknesses

1. match between students. To form a group sometimes very difficult to combine the students who want to work well together. Teachers need to know their students well to form a group that can function properly.

2. Dependence of students. Teachers who just trust students are smart to coordinate learning in his group would frustrate the purpose of cooperative learning. Teachers have to split the management of the group so it's really going on collaboration.

3. Require A lot of Time. This cooperative learning Model requires more time to study the subject matter compared to other learning model.

4. the Individualist. Students who like to work independently are not fond of this cooperative learning model.

5. limitations of Logistics/materials. The teacher must prepare a lot of information is the responsibility of students to learn it, then prepare materials for testing.

3. Benefits

**Why Use Cooperative Learning Model?**Document the learning outcomes include enhancement of the results of the study, improvement of behaviour and attendance, increased self-confidence and motivation, as well as increasing closeness between classmates and friends of the school. Cooperative learning is also easy for implementations and not too difficult.

View experts in cooperative learning.

Dewey (1916) & Arends (1977) have the view that the

• teachers should create a social system in the environmental studies are characterized by democracy and the process of scientific procedure.

• The teacher responsible for motivating students to work in a cooperative and to think about important social issues which appear on that day.

• Students, in addition to solving the problem in his group they also learn the principles of democracy through interactions with each other.

Herbert Thelan (1954, 1969) holds that

• Teachers develop more appropriate procedures to help students working in groups

• Class a lab or miniature democracy aims to examine the issues concern the social and interpersonal.

B. Learning steps

**How Does It Work?**There are a number of approaches and strategies that can be used for a variety of subjects, almost for all types of schools and the level in the application of cooperative learning model:

- Students who have different abilities are grouped consisting of 4 – 5 people in one group to learn what has been taught by a teacher and help each student achieve high learning results. Each student then the tests individually. , the group then certified accomplishments or other award as "recognition" of increasing accomplishments from the previous achievement. Grouping of students can be done by way of the meranking values that have been owned by students. STAD approach steps are as follows:
**STAD (Student Teams-Achievement Divisions),**can be used starting from ELEMENTARY SCHOOL to HIGH SCHOOL students.

Fase | Teacher Activity Phase |

1. Deliver competence that should be owned by students, and motivates students | Deliver the standard of competence, basic competence and indicators is expected as well as motivating students to learn |

2. the present information | Presents information to the students through demonstration activities or provide reading materials |

3. Organizing students into study groups | Explain to students how to form study groups and help each group in order to conduct discussions efficiently. |

4. Guiding Group | Guiding each group learn as they work on a task |

5. evaluation of | Evaluating the results of the study of the material that has been studied or each group presented the results of his work. |

6. Eeward | Seeking ways to appreciate the results of the learning of students both individually and group |

The approach can be used to study the STAD understanding or definition of the material being studied, and expected of students can work on its own without much help from the teacher.

**2. JIGSAW**, (Model team of experts)

This Model was proposed by ARONSON BLANEY, STEPHEN, SIKES and SNAPP in 1998.

On the approach of the JIGSAW students divided in groups of 5 – 6 members of the group have heterogeneous ability. Each Member of the group responsible for studying the specific material.

The learning material is given in the form of text. Each Member of the group responsible for studying the subject matter provided teachers. Members of the group that got the same task gathered to discuss the material given to teachers. Members of the group called the Group of experts.

Furthermore, each Member of the group back to the original group and explain what has been learned from the Group of experts.

To evaluate the results of the discussion group, teachers provide individual appropriate material that quiz are taught.

In JIGSAW approach each Member is responsible for studying the matter and was explaining to a friend of his group.

**In detail the steps of the implementation**of the JIGSAW is as follows:

• Form a small group of heterogeneous members consisting of 4 or 5 students.

• Teachers deliver competence expected student both of the standard of competence, basic competence and accomplishments and to improve the indicators of learning motivation of students.

• Teachers convey the subject matter to be studied by students

• Subject matter provided to each student or group but there is the same in other groups.

• Students from different groups which have been learning the same material collected in a new group called the Group of experts to discuss material that is assigned to them.

• When you are finished discussing students who joined in the team of experts back to his native groups each and in turn taught other students who are in one group of material already mastered and other students in his Group noticed in earnest.

• Every student in the team of experts presented the results of the discussions in the group.

• To evaluate the results of the discussion group, teachers give students the appropriate quiz to all the material taught. At the time of answer quizzes the students do not help each other.

• When you are finished discussing students who joined in the team of experts back to his native groups each and in turn taught other students who are in one group of material already mastered and other students in his Group noticed in earnest.

• Every student in the team of experts presented the results of the discussions in the group.

• To evaluate the results of the discussion group, teachers give students the appropriate quiz to all the material taught. At the time of answer quizzes the students do not help each other.

• At the end of the activities of the teacher asked the students to conclude the analytical study.

- This model was proposed by Sharan match in 1992, is designed to train the ability of higher thinking such as analyzing and evaluating. Students work in groups to produce a project/task that can be selected by the students.
**Group Investigations (Investigations Group);**

• The teacher split the class into multiple heterogeneous groups

• Teachers deliver competence expected student, which consists of the standard of competence, basic competence and an indicator of the intention of learning and task groups

• Teachers calling Chairman-the Chairman of the task so that the material for one group got the task of one material/task differs from other groups

• Each group discusses material that already exists in cooperative contain discovery

• After completed discussions, through a spokesman, the Chairman conveyed the results of the discussion group

• Teachers provide a brief description at once give the conclusion

• Evaluation

• Cover

**TGT (Team Games Tournament)**, the teacher prepared a game that is prepared in the form of a card problem, worksheet. At the end of the study determined the winning team

**POLLING STATIONS (Think Pair Share)**, pairing and sharing thinking designed to affect the patterns of interaction students, with stages: Thinking (thinking), Pairing (paired), and Sharing (sharing).

• Teachers prepare a few cards that contain some concepts or topics that are suited to review session, on the contrary one part of the problem and the other part card card answers

• Each student gets one card

• Each student think answers/questions of the cards held

• Any student looking for couples who have cards that fit in with the cards (a question of answers)

• Any student who can match his cards before the deadline given points

• After one round of cards whipped again so that each student gets a card that is different from the previous

• So beyond

• Conclusion/cover

**6. NHT (Number Head Together)**, numbering thinking together is designed to influence the pattern of interaction of students and as an alternative to the class structure. As for phase analytical study:

• Numbering

• Ask questions

• Thinking together

• Answer

**C. Factors Supporting Learning**

Some of the following is a contributing factor of learning by using cooperative learning model:

1.

**A grouping must be heterogeneous**, expected in any group there are students who have high academic ability.2.

**The spirit of gotong royong (doing together)**, to be built to be able to work with other students. (expected each group had the identity of the Group and has a group for passionate)3.

**Structuring the classroom**, there are several Setup classrooms that can be used depending on the type and characteristics of the material presented. There are several forms among others; the shape of a horseshoe, a long table, the table of the individual, the table group, a table of classical, etc.4.

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**Use a variety of techniques and approaches**that can be used in cooperative learning so that students do not get bored with the activities of the same on each meeting.
what you choose as a method of teaching?